Journal of Oral Tissue Engineering

Comparative Observations of Bone Formation in Peri-implant Tissue using Soft X-ray, Micro-computed Tomography and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscpy

1Tetsunari NISHIKAWA, 2Shinichi NAKAMURA, 3Yasuhiro TAJIME, 1Kazuya MASUNO, 4Yuki MATSUSHIMA, 3Keisuke SHIMADA, 1Kazuya TOMINAGA, 5Naoyuki MATSUMOTO, 3Kenji KAKUDO and 1Akio TANAKA

1 Departments of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, 2 Nakamura Dental Clinic, Kobe, 3 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (II), 4 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (I), 5 Orthodontics, Osaka Dental University, Osaka, Japan

J Oral Tissue Engin 2007;5(2): 104-112

Full Text. DOI

Objectives; To establish a method for nondestructive observation of bone in peri-implant tissue, we compare radiographs with soft X-ray, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).
Materials and Methods; After extraction of the 3rd incisors in the maxillary bone of beagle dogs (n=3), six titanium implants were placed in the bone. Two fluorescent dyes, calcein and alizarin red, were administered to the animals at different weeks. At 4, 8 and 12 weeks after implantation, the animals were sacrificed and temporal patterns of new bone formation at the interface between implant and host bone were observed in undecalcified materials using soft X-ray, micro-CT and CLSM.
Results; Bone density was analyzed with dental X-ray and soft X-ray. Micro-CT enables three-dimensional analysis of the bone in peri-implant tissue. CLSM had the advantage of enabling observation of the process of calcification at high magnification. In addition, the analysis of CLSM showed that a little newly formed bone appeared close to the host bone at 4 weeks after implantation, after which porous bone formation tended to increase with time up to 12 weeks, and filled the screw grooves of the implant. It was concluded that these three techniques are useful in assessing the relation of bone formation to implant design and surgical methods.

Key words: implant, soft X-ray, microcomputed tomography, confocal laser scanning microscopy, bone