Journal of Oral Tissue Engineering

A Brief History of the Animal Research Debate and the Place of Alternatives

Andrew N ROWAN

Executive Vice President, Humane Society of the U.S.,
Washington, DC, USA

J Oral Tissue Engin 2007;5(2): 113-121

Full Text. DOI

The history of animal use in research laboratories around the world is outlined with particular attention given to the concept of alternatives (the three Rs of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement). Using data from the UK and the USA, the paper demonstrates how far the "alternatives" concept has advanced in the last thirty years and how much progress has been made over that period.

Key words: alternatives, research animals, history, genetically-modified animals